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Apr 19, 2016

Adhitthana, the Parami of Strong Determination

Dhammam saranam gacchami

Adhitthana, meaning strong determination, is the backbone of the ten paramis* (qualities to be perfected for full enlightenment. Please see note below). All ten paramis are needed and developed through Vipassana practice to fully purify the mind, and to share with all beings benefits thereby gained.

Adhitthana must be strongly developed to attain success, to gain strength of mind to fulfill the paramis - and to serve all beings with infinite compassion.

Each of these ten qualities (paramis) are also of course enormously helpful in daily life. These qualities are necessary to beneficially cope with situations, challenges, ups and downs in life, in more harmoniously dealing with others. Developing the paramis not only serves long-term benefits, but give benefits here and now.

Greater benefits from a most beneficial Dhamma service undertaking, greater could be hurdles, obstacles, fears, distractions, storms and temptations to pause, postpone or give up the work. But the parami of adhitthana gained through Vipassana practice gives strength to stay the course, purify the mind, live a wholesome life and continue undeterred in endless Dhamma service to all beings.

Attending the Vipassana course after the application has been confirmed is one adhitthana (strong determination) undertaking fulfilled. Steadfast, unshakable iron-will to undertake, complete the Vipassana course. No weak mind of surrendering to negative forces within, and postponing by saying "I will do it later, I"m too busy now." Time is now. 

During a Vipassana course, students develop adhitthana at various levels. The student follows the necessary beneficial rules and code of discipline for the course duration. Facing all difficulties that may arise during the course, and completing the course requires strong adhitthana.

At a much deeper level, the three one-hour group meditations daily during a 10-day Vipassana course (8.00 am to 9.00 am, 2.30 pm to 3.30 pm and 6.00 pm to 7.00 pm) with strong determination purifies the mind and develops adhitthana.

For this one hour, the student resolves not to change posture, not to make any movement of the body (a reaction) and observe objectively impermanent, changing sensations that arise and pass away within one's physical structure. 

For instance during the Vipassana process of cleaning the mind, the impurities buried deep in the mind could surface as the sensation of pain. It could feel like hot daggers driven into the body. Or these impermanent, continuously changing sensations could be very pleasant. The earlier habit pattern was to react blindly with aversion or craving to bodily sensations, thereby multiplying the suffering. Now one observes the bio-chemical flow of sensations as it is, with balance of mind, without any evaluation of past conditioning. The habit pattern of blind reaction weakens, the impurities dissolve and the mind becomes purer, stronger.

Whatever sensation manifesting in the body is used as a tool to develop equanimity. This equanimity purifies the mind at its root level, and strengthens the parami of adhitthana.

Strong determination (adhitthana) is needed to keep the mind in reality of the present moment by observing arising and passing sensations - and not letting the mind wander away, rolling in impurities.

Without adhitthana, no Dhamma commitment can be fulfilled.

Strong, resolute determination is root of success in every undertaking. Fully steady the mind. All wandering, wavering of the mind, weakness and temptations must be overcome in steadfast progress towards the Dhamma goal - however long it takes, however hard the path may be.

Developing his paramis in lives across countless eons, the ascetic Gotama had reached the last night before attaining full enlightenment. On that full moon night on  banks of Neranjara river, he took adhitthana not to arise from his seat of meditation - not even if his bones were scattered - until he reached his final goal of total purification of the mind. This fixed determination, accumulated purity, and unshakable will-power enabled him to steadfastly overcome all negative, anti-Dhamma forces trying to distract, stop him from reaching the final goal.

Even after attaining the final goal of full enlightenment, the Sammasambuddha continued living the life of an ascetic. He could have spent the remainder of his life in the luxury of his father's palace. Or he could have taught Vipassana living in palaces of the kings who were dedicated Vipassana students. But out of infinite compassion for all beings, he lived a homeless life of complete renunciation - to show the world what is real, most superior happiness: attaining ultra purity of mind, selfless Dhamma service - not dependence or addiction to luxuries and physical comforts, but the deep peace, happiness and mental comfort of a pure mind with no ego, no clinging and craving.

"Adhitthana literally means determination, resolution or fixedness of purpose. Adhitthana can be regarded as a foundation for all the perfections, because without a firm determination one cannot fulfill the other paramitas. Although one’s determination can be extended to either desirable or undesirable way; it should be clearly understood that the determination for the line of unwholesome deeds cannot be regarded as a perfection.

A person with a wavering mind or who sits on the fence cannot succeed in any undertaking.

One must have an iron-will, an unshakable determination to overcome any difficulties of hardship in order to achieve success. 

He who has no determinative mind would easily give up his work before it is successful. Such a person with weak and unsteady mind should get disappointed easily and disheartened quickly. Even a word of criticism would be adequate to put an end to his projects.

A Bodhisatta, who has an unshakable resolution and who is a man of principles, will never give up his noble effort even at the point of death. He is capable of setting aside any obstacles in his way and going forward, turning his eyes towards his goal.

Our Bodhisatta, when he was Sumedha Pandit, made a firm determination at the feet of the Buddha Dipankara in this way: “O Sumedha, from now on you must fulfill the perfection of strong determination as well. 

Be steadfast in whatever Dhamma resolution you make. 

As a rock, even while the wind beats upon it on every side, does not tremble nor quake but remains in its own place, you must likewise be unshaken in your resolution until you become a Sammasambuddha.
Ten paramis:
nekkhamma (renunciation), sila (morality), viriya (effort), panna (experiential wisdom), sacca (truth), khanti (tolerance), metta (unconditional compassion for all beings), upekkha (equanimity), adhitthana (strong determination), dana (donation).
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Mar 30, 2016

The True Yoga of Mind and Matter

A synopsis of the landmark discourse of  Sayagyi U S.N. Goenka (1924 – 2013)
at Kaivalyadham Yoga Academy, Mumbai, April 30, 1990

From the original article 'Yoga - as seen in the light of Vipassana', Vipassana Research Institute

More detailed summary: Patanjali’s Yoga - True experiential understanding through Vipassana

Saint Kaivalyananda, instrumental in spread of yoga worldwide, expressed a wish that India’s ancient spiritual wealth should again benefit the country and the world. During tours to different countries teaching Vipassana, I interacted with thousands of yoga practitioners and yoga teachers. I feel very happy that so many are benefiting from yoga practice that originated in India.

Yoga is universal, beneficial to anyone practicing it, and not confined to any particular sect or religion. But Sage Kaivalyanand had a more comprehensive beneficial vision of yoga.

Is his original, true, holistic version of yoga being taught in the modern world?

Yoga offers more than physical exercises (asanas, pranayama etc). In modern times, yoga is used to improve one’s physical well-being, to cure ailments. But just as good physical health is essential, we must not forget health of the mind.

A purer mind free from harmful habit patterns leads to a wholesome, happy life. These greater benefits have to be included in modern day teaching and practice of yoga - in accordance with sages who practiced and taught yoga in its entirety.

Reclaiming India's treasures of practical wisdom
In past 2,000 years, India’s vast spiritual wealth has often been devalued. Original spiritual teachings have been misunderstood, misinterpreted, sometimes deliberately distorted by vested interests for selfish personal gains. What we have left is often a partially correct, incomplete or incorrect version of the original spiritual teaching.

It happened to Vipassana. Some misguided people distorted, devalued this invaluable practice, and sold it as therapies for physical ailments.

I personally feel a similar distortion has happened with yoga. Dedicated, true students of yoga and well-wishers must ensure this no longer happens.

We have to study the original teachings of yoga. The spiritual side of yoga has to be also highlighted. Otherwise, this most unfortunate situation continues where partial version of yoga is taught in the name of the great sage Patanjali.

The present situation is acceptable if yoga was spread only on basis of ‘Hatha Yoga Pradipika’ or ‘Gheranda Samhita’. These two books emphasize therapeutic benefits of yoga. But spreading an incomplete, partial yoga in the name of Patanjali is incorrect. 

From original Patanjali texts, we see how he gave very little importance to asanas (postures) and pranayama (breathing exercise). He refers to asanas and pranayama in barely five sentences in his treatise Patanjali Yoga Sutra! But the rest of his treatise has been forgotten! Dedicated students of yoga must take careful note of this fact.

Patanjali has defined asana by one phrase: the posture in which one can comfortably sit for a long time (for meditation). But this single statement of Patanjali on asana has been elaborated up to 84 types of complicated postures. And all of them are now taught in his name.

From being a teacher of a highly beneficial spiritual knowledge, Patanjali has been limited to being a physical exercise instructor. This is injustice to Patanjali.

Breathing exercises and physical exercises are beneficial for good physical health, and give a certain level of well-being of mind. But such exercises cannot eradicate impurities of the mind, the deep-rooted defilements that cause us so much suffering.
We have in fact lost our ancient spiritual treasure contained in Patanjali Yoga Sutra, by treating it as a mere compendium of asanas (postures) and pranayama (breathing exercise).

Not giving the complete picture of Yoga is a great misfortune and loss for the country and the world.

How did this happen? Unfortunately, commentators ignorant about the deeper spiritual dimensions of yoga gave arbitrary misinterpretations of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra. 

Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra refers to personal experience of the truth, to realizing rational truths i.e. ‘rt’.  People have forgotten actual meaning of ‘rt’. Rt means universal truth or omnipresent reality. It is law of nature that always exists, a universal law not limited only to people calling themselves Hindus, Jains, Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs etc.

For example, the intrinsic nature of fire is to burn. This is a natural law, timeless and universal, irrespective of religions.

In ancient India, universal truths were called ‘Dharma’, ‘Dhamma’, or ‘rt’. Universal truths apply to all.

Likewise, Patanjali treatise contains universal truths realized through experiential wisdom (paññā) i.e. wisdom gained from one’s own experience.

Wisdom gained from direct experience of the truth
Patanjali shared the wisdom (prajna) based on his own experience, not knowledge acquired through scriptures, sermons, philosophical discussions, or from speculative theories. Such second-hand wisdom will not give real benefits.

Only wisdom gained from direct experience of the truth will free us from suffering, because it eradicates impurities in the mind. With a cause, a particular result appears. This universal law of cause and effect realized through one’s own experience was termed rt.

It is very unfortunate that India had lost the invaluable practice of gaining experiential wisdom – rather than merely hearing someone’s description of the truth.

For centuries, India suffered the misfortune of losing the Buddha’s teaching of Vipassana.

Instead, the Buddha has been wrongly seen as founder of a religion.

This is injustice to a fully enlightened being – this infinitely compassionate universal teacher, a super scientist who re-discovered the actual practice to experience universal truths, be liberated from all suffering and experience true happiness.

Fortunately a neighboring country Burma (Myanmar) preserved in purity both the words and practice of the Buddha. Now India and the world again immensely benefit from Vipassana – the path of experiential wisdom.

In his original treatise, Patanjali echoes the Vipassana teachings of the Buddha who lived a few centuries earlier. He declared that nothing of true, permanent happiness exists in this world.

Anyone practicing Vipassana too realizes the deeper truth of suffering – not merely the obvious reality of suffering.

Daily realities of deeper suffering
Suffering is an obvious reality. Sickness, unwanted things happening, the wanted not happening – all this makes us miserable. But we also find that people having much money, fame, luxuries, adulation, power are also unhappy. One may accumulate all wealth and power, but something disagreeable happens, and becomes unhappy, discontented, or insecure about losing one’s wealth and possessions.

While the “have-nots” suffer from craving for what they do not have, the “haves” too less obviously suffer from great attachment to what they have – and everything we have is impermanent, continuously changing.

Without an inner experience of the truth, we do not understand how objects of attachment cause suffering. We think: ‘today we are happy with our attachment to the good things we have; suffering will arise when we will be deprived of that. So what? We will enjoy now, and suffer if we have to later’. But there is a deeper reality. Vipassana practice enables us to realize how suffering follows attachment in the same moment that attachment arises in the mind.

By generating attachment, the so-called subconscious mind constantly suffers tension that the conscious surface level of the mind is not aware. Only the surface level of the mind gets satisfied for some time with gratification of sensual desires.

We try to suppress the deeper inner feeling of dissatisfaction by diverting the surface level of the mind - indulgences in entertainment, pleasures etc. Or we use spiritual diversions like listening to sermons or reading some sacred text. We get relief for sometime. But very soon the knots of tension accumulated in the deeper, subtler levels of the mind again raises their head and that temporary relief goes away. Patanjali described this universal truth  of suffering.

Vipassana practice enables us to become more quickly aware of this subtler, deeper level of suffering, and to develop equanimity, the strength of mind, to deal with it.
Patanjali explains similar universal truths in his treatise, such as the rtambhara prajna (wisdom based on rt, that is wisdom acquired through one's own experience) - identical to experiences of a Vipassana practitioner.

A Vipassana meditator experiences the universal truth of impermanence by objectively observing impermanent bodily sensations within. 

Now you may accept these truths through lectures or literature, but after practicing Vipassana you will experience them yourself.

Eradicating the root cause of suffering
“There is suffering” - this is a timeless truth. The Buddha went further. He went to the root cause of suffering. Experience this truth at the deeper level, and you will know its deeper cause. What is impermanent, continuously changing, is a source of suffering.

As misery exists, the cause for it also exists. Just as one fully cures a physical disease by removing its root cause, and not merely the symptoms, so too suffering is removed by removing its root cause – not merely the apparent causes.

This process is symbolically termed in Yoga as heya, i.e. suffering, hetu, i.e. craving and hana, i.e. the way to eliminate the root cause. So if the cause is eradicated the disease is eradicated. 

Similarly, if suffering is there and its cause i.e. craving is there, definitely the remedy to remove the habit of craving must also be in existence. That universal remedy is Vipassana - the practice of gaining wisdom through direct experience.

The wisdom filled with experiential wisdom i.e., rtambhara prajna and Vipassana are synonyms to each other.

Vipassana means to experience the truth in its ultimate reality. Step by step, from gross to subtler realities, one experiences the ultimate truth. Truth in its apparent, gross form creates illusion. When the apparent truth is analyzed, dis-integrated into its subtlest form, the seer experiences the ultimate truth.

So Vipassana can be defined as "Vivekena pasyatiti vipasyana". That means to see the truth with a rational outlook. In this context’ ‘rational’ means to see the reality or rather to experience the reality, beyond apparent realities. This is Vipassana.

But we have never tried to peer inside the depth of our mind, what to talk of analyzing the reality coming out of it? It is because we have lost the technique to do so, the universal practice of Vipassana taught by Buddha about 2,500 years ago.

As long as Vipassana existed in its pure form in India, it gave much benefit to practitioners. Millions of people in India, particularly in northern parts of the country, benefited for about 500 years after the passing away of the Buddha.

After attaining full enlightenment, Buddha described the different stages he crossed. Unfortunately that literature no more exists in any of the modern Indian languages. That is why several myths and distorted forms of meditation prevail now in our country. Burma preserved both the theory and practice of Vipassana in its pristine purity, but unfortunately this was limited to a chain of little-known teachers, with limited number of practitioners.

From this tradition, we have accounts of Buddha's pursuit for truth to be liberated from suffering. He had wandered searching, exploring various spiritual traditions prevalent in India of those times. He learned from various teachers and their meditation techniques. He understood by this time that real happiness does not come from anything in this impermanent world, where all things are subject to change, decay, death. He knew he had to go beyond impermanence, to find something that is not subject to arising, passing away.

He had already acquired knowledge of all the philosophical traditions of the time while he was a prince. In India, philosophy is termed as ‘darsana’ meaning "revelation of truth." But the true meaning has been lost, and philosophy now is more of intellectual perceptions and speculations of the truth, rather than actual experience of the truth. The ascetic Gotama was looking for a practical path.
He next mastered the highest forms of meditation known in those times. He learned the seven jhanas (very highly concentrated states of the mind) from Alar Kalam, and the rarer eighth jhana from Uddaka Ramputta.

But the Buddha still found impurities dormant in deeper levels of the mind. The roots of suffering remained. The Buddha called these ‘anusaya kilesas’, impurities buried so deep that the jhanas cannot take them out. These impurities will periodically erupt in the mind, causing nothing but suffering, again and again.

To remove these anusaya impurities at its roots, the Buddha re-discovered the practice of Vipassana. i.e. sampajañña.

Practice of Vipassana to fully purify the mind
The English language has no corresponding word to ‘sampajañña’. It’s has been inaccurately translated as mere ‘comprehension’. The true meaning of ‘sampajañña’ that the Buddha taught is to experience impermanence - by observing, with equanimity, the changing flow of bodily sensations within. This is the practice of Vipassana.

To make the mind sharp and subtle enough to experience bodily sensations, the Vipassana practitioner starts with observing the flow of natural breath (Anapana meditation that is taught as a preparatory exercise, during the first three days of a 10-day Vipassana course). One observes the natural incoming and outgoing breath, as it comes in, as it goes out. No regulation of the breath. Only bare observation of the natural breath – as it is.
Patanjali also refers to the same practice of observing one's natural breath. After persistent efforts through struggle, the mind becomes concentrated, peaceful. It is noteworthy in this context that the interval between the inhaling and exhaling of natural breath is termed kumbhaka, i.e. retention of breath, in Patanjali Yoga Sutra. By observing the natural breath, the retention of breath takes place automatically without any effort whatsoever.
But nowadays people try to reach this stage by a forceful effort to retain the breath. This is the distorted version of kumbhaka practice, from that which Patanjali actually taught. Those who think they have reached the thought-free state of mind with this incorrect form of kumbhaka become confused because the mind reverts back to the distracted state when the artificial retention of breath is stopped.
But if kumbhaka is achieved as Patanjali originally taught – by objectively observing the natural breathing, without regulating it - the period of kumbhaka will automatically be much longer.

Respiration is not merely a bodily process, the need of oxygen for the lungs. Respiration is also closely associated with the mind. Respiration is both voluntary and involuntary. By closely observing our natural respiration in Anapana meditation, we find that the flow of respiration is directly associated with the type of mental thoughts flowing in our mind. If anger or craving arises in the mind, we find respiration has become hard, irregular. But if the mind is calm and peaceful, respiration too is subtler and stable.

The subtler mind then experiences the subtler reality of bodily sensations. Vipassana practice is observing, with equanimity, impermanence of bodily sensations (sampajañña) – objectively being aware of the changing reality within.

With sampajañña, the practitioner understands the truth of one’s mind-matter interaction, how matter influences the mind and how mind influences matter - and how by blind reaction with craving or aversion to sensations, we generate suffering. This whole process becomes clear through sampajañña.

Patanjali gave much importance to direct realization of universal truths through direct experience - rtambhara prajna as ultimate goal of the practitioner, in the same way as Vipassana meditation involves gaining paññā from one's own experience.
Beginning a new life with a 10-day Vipassana course
In ten-day Vipassana courses, people begin to experience subtler truths by objectively observing impermanent flow of bodily sensations.
Progressing, the Vipassana practitioner experiences how the gross solidity of the body is nothing but wavelets, vibrations, mass of sub-atomic particles continuously arising and passing away. The Buddha called these impermanent sub-atomic particles ‘kalapas’ – the basic, indivisible particle of matter that is so small that trillions of such particles can be collected at the point of a needle.

Modern scientists have reached the state of understanding that matter is not solid at the sub-atomic level. India’s spiritual scientists too had long before discovered this impermanent nature of all phenomena. They used their own and mind and body to experience the subtlest truth, not laboratory apparatus. Only this inner wisdom leads to liberation from suffering.

2,500 years ago, the Buddha said "sabbo pajalito loko, sabbo loko pakampito", everything in the universe is in a state of vibration, combustion. By correctly practicing Vipassana, we directly experience this universal truth - within one’s own body-mind structure.

One who practices Vipassana, as the Buddha taught, experiences universal truths through observing interaction of one’s own mind-matter phenomenon: how the mind influences the material body and how body influences mind. 

How do the mind and body continuously interact?

An object comes in contact with the eye sense door, the eye consciousness arises. The part of the mind cognizing the mind-body contact is called ‘viññana’ or perception. It leads to arising of the evaluation part of the mind called ‘saññā ’.

Next, based on the ‘pleasant’, ‘unpleasant’ evaluation given on the bias of past experiences, a pleasant or unpleasant flow of sensations (vedana) permeate the body. The apparent truth is that we react to outside objects, people and events. The actual truth is that we blindly react to these sensations with craving or aversion. This habit pattern of blind reaction creates conditioning of the mind called ‘sankara’. Deep-rooted sankaras are called ‘anusaya kilesas’ – latent impurities that are the constant source of all our suffering.

The Vipassana practitioner experiences how this entire process of suffering is broken at the level of sensations. Instead of the earlier habit pattern of blindly reacting to sensations, one observes the impermanent sensations with equanimity.

The objects of sense doors are impermanent; the consciousness arising from sensory contact is impermanent, the bodily sensations are impermanent. Why react and generate suffering to something that is changing, impermanent, no longer there? 

With this wisdom of impermanence, there is no more blind reaction of craving or aversion to sensations. The habit pattern of generating new sankaras of suffering is broken. The old sankaras arise to the surface as sensations and pass away. The mind is getting purified. One is coming out of misery.

Such a process leading to pure happiness was polluted in the spiritual tradition of India. Instead of practicing meditation, people started debating, giving sermons or lectures about the above truths. But with no experience of the actual truth, they began distorting the real meaning. Gradually only conflicting philosophies remained and the actual practice was lost, the benefits lost.

It does not help to be merely proud of our wise ancestors and call them as teachers to the world (vishwa guru). Merely reading, praising or sermons about the joyous spiritual feast of our ancestors is not going to cure our hunger. We have to make efforts to directly experience the feast of the truth. Only then we are making best use of the high spiritual wisdom attained by true, pure sages of India. 

Actual practice is the only means to benefit from this invaluable spiritual heritage. Rtambhara prajna of Patanjali's Yoga means revelation of the truth from one's own experience. 

I request you to benefit from gaining rtambhara prajna - experiential wisdom. Taking a 10-day Vipassana course is a beginning. The more you walk on the path, the more benefits you gain from self-realized wisdom of vivekakhyati or sampajañña

Vipassana is a path of self-dependence, self-realization, directly experiencing the truth.  It frees us from all impurities in the mind - and we experience true peace and happiness. 

May all be peaceful, happy, liberated.

Original article 'Yoga - as seen in the light of Vipassana', Vipassana Research Institute